Recently I wanted to run a resource intensive Windows program but didn’t really have the hardware or bandwidth to support it.
I started doing some digging into installing Windows on DigitalOcean as it seemed cheaper than putting credits into a proper Windows VPS host.
Search results for “Windows on Digital Ocean” primarily show a paywalled blog post on whatuptime.com, a leaked copy of that guide and similar guides with pre-compiled images of dubious origin and trustworthiness.
While at least one of these guides seemed to work, I wanted to be able to compile the latest version of Windows myself using images downloaded directly from Microsoft and forgo the potential security (and legal) nightmares that could come from running Windows from an unofficial source.
Initially I tried to download the official Windows Virtual Machines, convert them to raw format using
qemu-img, and dd them to the droplet. This however did not work for various reasons, most notably these images do not include the required drivers.
After some research and trial-and-error I was able to successfully create a VM image that worked on any-size droplet using the Windows ISO, VirtIO Drivers, and QEMU emulation. The following guide will walk you through the process I used so that you can make your own image and flash it to a DigitalOcean Droplet.
Table of Contents
- 1 Summary
- 2 Preparation
- 3 Windows Installation
In this guide we will learn how to install Windows 10 1803 on Digital Ocean using the official Windows ISO. This process will take between 1-2 hours and requires some level of linux and virtualization knowledge.
If you don’t already have a DigitalOcean account, you can use my referral code and get $10 off your new account.
First create two droplets, in this example I created two 2GB instance named
We will use
imageserver temporarily to build and host the Windows installation files. As such it will be deleted at the end.
windows will be where our Windows installation will eventually live. This droplet can be any size.
For this guide to work
imageserver must have at least 2GB of ram, however we can select a more powerful droplet as it will only be used temporarily and thus only costs a fraction of a cent for a faster installation process.
Once they have been spun up, we will ssh into
imageserver and setup the required dependencies.
# Install qemu apt-get update && apt-get install qemu -y # Create disk image qemu-img create -f raw windows10.img 16G # Get virtio drivers wget https://fedorapeople.org/groups/virt/virtio-win/direct-downloads/stable-virtio/virtio-win.iso
We will also need a copy of the Windows 10 ISO. To get this you will need to visit Microsoft’s ISO download page to generate a unique link.
Windows 10 and
English, then right click on
64-bit Download and select copy link location.
Replace the link within the single quotes in the next section with your own. Make sure you keep the quotes and
-O Win10_1803_English_x64.iso line.
# Download Windows 10 ISO wget -O Win10_1803_English_x64.iso 'https://software-download.microsoft.com/pr/Win10_1803_English_x64.iso?t=72da8fbf-7dff-49e0-9fbe-7a61e523c2ac&e=1537466952&h=6662b277f04183b1a08d25fbc1256aec'
Now that we have all the required dependencies, we can go ahead and start the installation. Using the following command we will start emulating the Windows ISO and a VNC server so we can connect to it.
# Start Windows 10 VM with VNC qemu-system-x86_64 \ -m 1G \ -cpu host \ -enable-kvm \ -boot order=d \ -drive file=Win10_1803_English_x64.iso,media=cdrom \ -drive file=windows10.img,format=raw,if=virtio \ -drive file=virtio-win.iso,media=cdrom \ -vnc :0 \ # Press CTRL + C to stop virtualization
-m 1G with
-m 2G or
-m 6G if your
imageserver droplet is 4GB or 8GB
Now on your local machine you will need to use a VNC Viewer to access it. In this example I use
xtightvncviewer on my local debian system. Replace
imageserver with your servers IP.
# Install vncviewer sudo apt-get install xtightvncviewer # Connect to imageserver vncviewer imageserver
After connecting to the VNC server we should see the Windows language selection screen.
If we hit
install now we should be presented with a screen asking for our license key. Either enter your key or select
I don't have a product key and continue to the selection screen. I choose Windows 10 Pro for this demo and grudgingly ignored the EULA.
Hot tip: you can use the tab, enter and arrow keys to navigate the entire installation process.
Now for the important bits!
Custom: Install Windows only (advanced).
Load driver then click
You’ll want to scroll down to
CD Drive (E:) virtio-win-0.1.1.
Now we can select the Network driver, which can be found in
We will also need to uncheck
Hide drivers that aren't compatible with this computer's hardware then select the first option
Red Hat VirtIO Ethernet Adapter and
Now we need to repeat this process again selecting
browse and scrolling down to
CD Drive (E:) virtio-win-0.1.1.
This time we need to select
E:\viostor\w10\amd64 and install the
Red Hat VirtIO SCSI controller.
We should now see our drive. Go ahead and highlight it then click
next one last time.
Now we wait for the installation to complete. This will take about 5 minutes.
Once we see the
Windows needs to restart to continue screen we can close vncviewer, go back to our terminal, and hit CTRL+C to stop virtualization.
Now that we have a Windows 10 image with the correct drivers we will need to compress it and transfer it to our Windows Droplet.
To do this first we compress the image using the following command.
# Compress image dd if=windows10.img | gzip -c > windows10.gz
This will take a a little while, so now is probably a good time to grab some water or stretch a bit.
The following will show up when it’s done.
33554432+0 records in 33554432+0 records out 17179869184 bytes (17 GB, 16 GiB) copied, 723.762 s, 23.7 MB/s
Once the image has been compressed we can go ahead and host it using the following.
python3 -m http.server
Now we need to jump back to the DigitalOcean dashboard and open the
windows droplet we created earlier.
Recovery on the bottom left, then select
Boot from Recovery ISO and turn off the droplet using the switch in the top right.
As soon as the droplet is powered off we can hit the power switch again and bring it online.
Once it’s powered on with the recovery ISO we can SSH into it. SSH is needed as the DigitalOcean console doesn’t support the
-------------------------------------------------------------------- DigitalOcean Recovery Environment 18.04.1 (Zesty Zona) This image has been mounted by the DigitalOcean Support Team. When you have completed your work in the recovery environment update your support ticket to request that your droplet be booted to it's disk. This rescue environment is based on Ubuntu 18.04. -------------------------------------------------------------------- Last login: Wed Sep 19 19:32:54 2018 [email protected]:~#
Now we need to type the following, replacing
imageserver with the IP of your
wget -O- http://imageserver:8000/windows10.gz | gunzip | dd of=/dev/vda
This should take about 7 minutes. Near the end it may appear to hang, but it is just copying the file to the disk.
--2018-09-19 19:44:19-- http://imageserver:8000/windows10.gz Connecting to imageserver:8000... connected. HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK Length: 3901220354 (3.6G) [application/gzip] Saving to: ‘STDOUT’ - 100%[=================================================>] 3.63G 39.2KB/s in 7m 14s 2018-09-19 19:51:34 (8.57 MB/s) - written to stdout [3901220354/3901220354] 33554432+0 records in 33554432+0 records out 17179869184 bytes (17 GB, 16 GiB) copied, 436.588 s, 39.4 MB/s
Once the copy is complete we can run
shutdown 0 and go back to the recovery page on the digital ocean dashboard. We then select
Boot from Hard Drive and power the droplet back on.
We should now be able to press the
console button in the top right to complete our Windows installation.
At this point we a have a mostly functional Windows install. We just need to complete the initial setup, configure the network settings and enable remote desktop.
Go ahead and fill in the basics, choosing
do this later when you get to network settings, and put special care (or better yet random generation) into choosing a secure password.
Once the basics are done, we need to configure the network.
We can do this by clicking on the network icon in the bottom right, then selecting
Network & Internet Settings
Now we can click
Change adapter options at the bottom of this window.
From here we can select our
Ethernet adapter and click the little drop down in the top right, then selecting
Change settings of this connection
Now double click on
Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) to bring up the IPv4 settings.
You can use the information at the bottom of the Droplet Console to complete the next section. You will also need to enter DNS servers. In this example I used
126.96.36.199 provided by CloudFlare and
188.8.131.52 provided by Google.
Now that our droplet is connected to the network we will need to setup a better way to manage it. For this guide we will set up Remote Desktop Protocol (aka RDP), however you could also setup VNC or another remote desktop application if you prefer.
First we goto the start menu and search
Remote Desktop settings
From here we toggle the
Enable Remote Desktop button, then click
Lastly we need to uncheck
Require computers use Network Level Authentication otherwise we will receive a CredSSP error when trying to connect.
If you found this helpful and don’t already have a DigitalOcean account you can use my referral code to get $10 off your new account.